These snippets are just a short reminder of how class variables work in Python. I understand this topic a bit too well, I think; I always remember the gotchas and can’t remember which gotcha belongs to which important detail. I generally come up with the right answer then convince myself I’m wrong until I write a bit of code and experiment. Hopefully this snippet will shortcut that process.

Consider the following class hierarchy:

from itertools import count

class Foo(object):

    counter = count()

    def __init__(self): =

    def __str__(self):
        return "{} {}".format(self.__class__.__name__,

class Bar(Foo):

class Baz(Bar):

Every instance of Foo will be assigned a unique, automatically incrementing id using the count iterator for itertools. The thing to remember is that Bar and Baz are also instances of Foo:

>>> isinstance(Baz(), Foo)

Keep that in mind given the following code:

>>> import random
>>> things = (Foo, Bar, Baz)
>>> for _ in xrange(10):
...     print random.choice(things)()

What is the expected result? If you said something like as follows:

Bar 0
Baz 1
Foo 2
Baz 3
Foo 4
Bar 5
Bar 6
Bar 7
Foo 8
Bar 9

Then you’re on the right track.

The problem is that the code above is typically not what is meant by programmers. And while I typically come to the conclusion that what I’m actually expressing by the above code is counting instances of Foo, what I actually want to do is count instances of each class (how many of each Foo, Bar, and Baz).

Then I realize … oh crap, I’ve strayed into metaprogramming land. And that’s why I need the reminder of this post. I definitely get that I need a metaclass to make subclass counters work as expected, but I never remember exactly how to do it. So here’s how.

class Countable(type):

    def __new__(cls, name, bases, attrs):
        attrs['counter'] = count()
        return super(Countable, cls).__new__(cls, name, bases, attrs)

class Foo(object):

    __metaclass__ = Countable

Basically, what we’ve done here is is told the Foo class that it should be constructed using Countable instead of type. When the class is created, therefore it is given the class attribute counter. Now the output is as follows:

Foo 0
Bar 0
Foo 1
Baz 0
Bar 1
Foo 2
Foo 3
Foo 4
Baz 1
Foo 5

This post isn’t about a long discussion on the metaclass in Python or how type is a subclass of type, but simply serves as a reminder for the very rare occasion that I have to rock something other than type. For more information on the subject, a very nice write-up, A Primer on Python Metaclasses by @jakevdp is the way to go.